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Fisetin Source: Chemical Constituents of Cotinus Coggygria Scop. Extract and Their Pharmacological Activities

Chemical Constituents of-Cotinus Coggygria Scop. Extract

Cotinus coggygria Scop., commonly known as smoketree or Japanese fruit wax tree, is a plant found in southern Europe, Iran, Pakistan, northern India, and many provinces in China. It is often used for soil and water conservation and landscaping due to its ornamental qualities. The chemical constituents of Cotinus coggygria Scop. Extracts have garnered significant interest due to their potential pharmacological activities and therapeutic applications.

The plant is rich in phenolic compounds and flavonoids, which exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hair growth-promoting properties. In traditional Chinese medicine, it is utilized to treat various conditions such as jaundice, hepatitis, burns, and lacquer sores. The fragrant oil derived from Cotinus coggygria has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and astringent effects and is used for heat-clearing, detoxifying, and relieving pain. Additionally, the Huangqi root bark addresses postpartum fatigue in women.

The medicinal parts of Cotinus coggygria are its dry leaves and tender branches, harvested in summer to clear dampness and heat and used for acute infectious hepatitis. Research on the chemical composition and pharmacological activity of Cotinus coggygria has been ongoing since the 1980s, providing valuable insights for its comprehensive utilization and effective development of its medicinal value.

Chemical constituents of Cotinus coggygria Scop.


Flavonoids are the primary active components found in Cotinus coggygria. They encompass various structural types, such as flavones, flavonols, dihydroflavones, chalcones, and aurones, with 18 flavonoid compounds isolated from the plant to date. Analysis of Cotinus coggygria branches revealed significant concentrations of sulfur chrysomelidin, quercetin, and dihydrofisetin. Additionally, a new compound, C-3/C-3” double 3′,4′,7-trihydroxyflavone, has been recently identified.

Fisetin bulk powder suppliers

The key active ingredients, including fisetin ingredient, exhibit therapeutic effects on conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and osteoporosis. Recent research has also highlighted their potential in lowering blood pressure, anticoagulation, and liver protection. Fisetin, in particular, has gained attention for its ability to activate the SIRT1 longevity protein and its emergence as a popular substance in anti-aging, particularly as a raw material for health products and as an alternative to NMN products.

Phenolic Acid Components

Cotinus coggygria leaves yield a variety of phenolic acid components, with gallic acid being one of them. Studies have identified six phenolic acid components extracted from the leaves, including gallic acid, methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, ellagic acid, catechol, and pyrogallol. Furthermore, pentagalloyl glucose has been isolated from Cotinus coggygria extract.

Volatile Oil Components

Distillation of Cotinus coggygria leaves and flowers yields a variety of volatile oil components. In a study by Li Huicheng et al., supercritical fluid CO2 (SFE-CO2) extraction of volatile oil from Cotinus coggygria identified 47 compounds, representing 83.09% of the total peak area in the chromatogram. These compounds include 27 terpenoids, accounting for approximately 53.08% of the total composition, 6 aromatic compounds, 7 other alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and esters, and 7 long-chain hydrocarbons and acids. Carnation, dactylol, and dianthus oxide were the most abundant compounds. Additionally, steam distillation of Cotinus coggygria branches identified 48 volatile oil compounds, constituting 84.24% of the total distillation peak area in the chromatogram.

These compounds include 28 terpenoids, 4 aromatic compounds, 6 other alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and esters, and 8 long-chain hydrocarbons and acids. Pulegone-1-ene-8-ol and carvacrol were among the most abundant compounds. In separate studies, Demirci et al. and Tzakou et al. conducted steam distillation of Cotinus coggygria leaves in Turkey and Greece, respectively, revealing the main components to be limonene, (Z)-β-ocimene, (E)-β-ocimene, and monoterpenes.

Pharmacological Activities

Antioxidant Properties

Cotinus coggygria Extracts demonstrate potent antioxidant properties, including free radical scavenging. Nićiforović et al. extensively studied the antioxidant activity of the aerial dried parts of Cotinus coggygria using six different methods, revealing that the alcohol extract exhibited the strongest total antioxidant activity, significant hydroxyl free radical scavenging activity, and strong metal chelating ability. This suggests a positive correlation between the antioxidant properties of Cotinus coggygria and its polyphenol content. Additionally, Ivanova et al. found that Cotinus coggygria leaf water extract showed good antioxidant activity in vitro, while Savikin et al. demonstrated the effective DPPH free radical scavenging activity of methanol extracts from Cotinus coggygria leaves and flowers.

Promotion of Hair Growth and Skin and Mucous Membrane Effects

Research has reported the hair growth-promoting effects of Cotinus coggygria leaf extract and its protective effects on the skin and mucous membranes. Bruning et al. formulated a cream using concentrated water extract from Cotinus coggygria leaves, which, when applied to areas of hair loss at a concentration of 150 mg/ml, promoted hair growth after approximately 6 weeks of use, as compared to the control minoxidil. Additionally, Totada et al. found that the combined use of Cotinus coggygria water extract with insulin promoted the growth of eyelashes and hair, possibly by inducing hair growth factors and regulating hair growth and growth cycles.

Furthermore, Seiberg et al. conducted studies on water extract obtained from dried Cotinus coggygria leaves and found that it could enhance the elasticity of skin and mucous tissue and maintain structural integrity. However, the specific mechanism of action requires further research.

Anticoagulant and Blood Pressure-Lowering Effects

Studies have shown that the water extract of Cotinus coggygria rhizome exhibits significant anticoagulant effects. Research by Cui Enxian et al. revealed that the extract significantly reduced clot length, decreased clot weights, and prolonged prothrombin time in a rat model of acute blood stasis, with no significant difference compared to enteric-coated aspirin tablets. This suggests that the extract has a notable anticoagulant and anti-thrombotic effect, possibly due to its ability to prolong prothrombin time and activate partial thromboplastin time.

Furthermore, the flavonoid compounds in Cotinus coggygria also demonstrate hypotensive effects. Long Lihui et al. found that the water-ethanol sediment of Cotinus coggygria had a significant dose-dependent hypotensive effect on pet dogs without affecting heart rate. This hypotensive effect may be attributed to its active components, the flavonoid compounds fisetin and quercetin.

Liver Regeneration

Fisetin, derived from Cotinus coggygria, plays a role in carbohydrate metabolism. Research on Cotinus coggygria syrup by Shen Qingliang et al. has demonstrated its significant protective and reparative effects on liver damage caused by hepatitis and its ability to enhance immune cell activity and immune organ function. The syrup, containing 3 mg of fisetin per milliliter, promotes bile secretion, reduces bile duct sphincter tension, increases bile flow, reduces enzymes, and boosts the body’s immune system, thereby exerting its anti-hepatitis and chemically-induced liver damage protective effects. Additionally, Constantin et al. found that fisetin in Cotinus coggygria can effectively prevent symptoms such as high blood sugar by reducing glycogen breakdown and blocking the action of hormones on liver glycogen breakdown in rats.

Antimicrobial Properties

Research has reported the antibacterial effects of Cotinus coggygria leaf volatile oil and young branch extracts. Miroslav et al. studied the antimicrobial activity of volatile oil extracted from Cotinus coggygria leaves using steam distillation in Serbia. The paper disc diffusion method demonstrated high antibacterial activity, with the volatile oil showing greater antifungal effects than the commonly used antifungal agent clotrimazole. Furthermore, Marčetić et al. found that acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of Cotinus coggygria young branches exhibited inhibitory effects on both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, while the chloroform extract showed notable antibacterial activity against Candida albicans.

Genotoxicity Studies

Recent research has investigated the genotoxicity of methanol extracts from Cotinus coggygria. Matic et al. conducted studies using the sex-linked recessive lethal (SLRL) test and the alkaline comet assay (CA) on the methanol extract of Cotinus coggygria rhizome. The results indicated a positive SLRL and mild genotoxicity at medium to high doses (1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg), while no significant genotoxicity was observed at the low dose (500 mg/kg). Additionally, Stanić et al. analyzed the genotoxicity of methanol extracts of Cotinus coggygria and found that a 5% extract mixed with the classic genotoxic agent ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS, 0.75 ppm) exhibited genotoxicity, but the addition of 2% extract significantly reduced the genotoxicity, suggesting a detoxifying effect at certain doses of the methanol extract.

 Additional Benefits

In addition to its known properties, Cotinus coggygria extracts have shown promising anti-tumor effects and the ability to enhance hypoxia tolerance. In vitro experiments conducted by Savikin et al. revealed the potential cytotoxicity of Cotinus coggygria extracts against human tumor cells, particularly Hela cells. Furthermore, Cui Enxian et al. demonstrated that the total flavonoids extracted from Cotinus coggygria significantly improved hypoxia tolerance in animals, with effects comparable to propranolol. These extracts also offer the benefits of promoting blood circulation, reducing whole blood viscosity, and minimal toxic side effects.

Where to buy cotinus coggygria extract in bulk?

Hygie Biotech, one of the cotinus coggygria extract manufacturers in China, is known for its expertise in producing high-quality extracts from the Cotinus coggygria Scop. Plants which contain active chemical constituents such as fisetin. The fisetin specifications range from 10% to 98%. Specifically, 10%, 30%, 50%, and 98% fisetin. Hygieia Fisetin sets the market standard as the premier choice with an unmatched 99% fisetin purity and assay level—the highest available. Our range of Fisetin powder specifications is designed for flexibility, precisely meeting diverse market needs.


Considerable research has been conducted on the chemical composition and pharmacological activities of Cotinus coggygria extracts. The presence of flavonoids and polyphenols makes it suitable for preventing and treating conditions such as hypertension and jaundice hepatitis. Although the mechanisms behind Cotinus coggygria’s promotion of hair growth and its effects on skin mucosa are not fully elucidated, future research will clarify its various pharmacological mechanisms and conduct a pharmacological analysis of its individual compounds. Fisetin powder will be more popular among anti-aging and longevity supplement brands.


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