Although aging is inevitable, there are opportunities to healthy slow down the process, thanks to nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). Living to late adulthood is everyone’s dream and compounds like NMN might help us achieve that. The 4th NMN Clinical trial is finally out! You’re probably wondering how this compound correlates with aging. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is a precursor to NAD+. NAD+ is an important biomarker in the human cell. As we get older, this molecule is depleted as a result of several enzyme functions. Moreover, the rate of consumption is always indirectly proportional to the degree of production. One important thing to note is that, unlike most anti-aging treatments that leave you with undesired symptoms, NMN side effects are down to zero. Let’s see how NMN affects your life and how it works.
What is NMN?
Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) belongs to the B3 family of vitamins. NMN is the immediate precursor of NAD+ and is involved in NAD+ biosynthesis in all living organisms. NMN is one of the largest sources of cellular energy in the human body. In recent preclinical studies, nicotinamide mononucleotide has been confirmed to be essential within the therapeutic domain. A significant breakthrough was the realization of the compound’s enormous role in counteracting aging and sustaining the aging process. Recently, there has been promising research on the management of nicotinamide mononucleotide for treating cancer. Despite treating cancer, NMN was found to be very efficient in treating other health and age-related diseases.
NMN clinical trials
In the first human clinical trial, scientists focus on the effect of NMN on metabolic health in people, which was conducted by Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis and Keio University School of Medicine in Tokyo. Also, the aim was to show that NMN can be safe when administrated orally. In this trial, 10 healthy men between the age of 40-60 were given an oral dose of NMN, including 100, 250, or 500mg. These various NMN doses did not change the heart rate, blood pressure, kidney function, and there were also no changes in the blood and urine tests. When measuring certain parameters, it was found that the NMN metabolites increased with the dosage. Therefore, NMN showed great efficacy because it increases the NAD+ levels and improves metabolism. In addition, NMN was found to be safe and well metabolized in the human body in dosage up to 500mg.
The second human clinical trial is focused on how NMN increases muscle sensitivity in prediabetic women. A double-blind and placebo study was done, where 25 postmenopausal women participated. Thirteen of them were taking NMN, while 12 women undergo a placebo for a 10-week period. The results show that NMN increases NAD+ in the blood in the NMN group, and can increase muscle sensitivity in women who are obese or overweight. The study showed no adverse effects and no changes in the blood test in both groups. With the results, NMN improves muscle sensitivity in women with prediabetes, by enhancing insulin’s ability for glucose intake. With this finding, we can conclude that NMN appears to be safe to use.
The third clinical trial was conducted to emphasize the benefits of NMN supplementation that have synergistic effects which improve aerobic training in amateur runners. In a six-week investigation 48 recreationally, healthy and trained runners were tested, without previous medical history. Each group was given different NMN doses, including 300mg, 600mg, 1000mg, and a placebo group. After 6 weeks, the results revealed a greater body’s ability to absorb oxygen as well as endurance improvement. The NMN supplementation is considered safe even at high doses such as 1200mg/day.
4th NMN clinical trial
So far, many clinical trials have shown the health benefits of NMN in animals and humans. All these efficacy human clinical trials indicate that taking NMN is safe and well-tolerated.
In addition to the potential of NMN for age-related conditions, a fourth human clinical trial has just been revealed. This is a randomized, double-blind, and controlled study to present the effect of taking NMN on fatigue, sleep quality, and physical performance in older Japanese people. For 12-week, 108 participants, who were 65 years old and older, were supplemented with 250 mg NMN daily, either after waking up until 12:00 or from 18:00 until bedtime. The two different times are given to compare the effects, and based on that the participants were divided into four groups, where 2 groups were taking NMN either AM or PM, and 2 placebo groups in the same periods.
All participants were healthy, and active, without taking sleeping pills or other drugs and without medical history such as dementia, sleep disorder, depression, alcoholism, etc. The measurements were taken at three main points, at the baseline, after 6 weeks, and after 13 weeks. The level of sleep quality, fatigue, and physical performance was measured by specific tests.
The measurements taken at the baseline show no significant changes among all four groups. In the NMN-PM group were noticed differences in the time of sleep duration, sleep quality, disturbances, daytime dysfunctions, and other analyses done. The results of fatigue and drowsiness, both NMN-AM and NMN-PM groups show significant improvements after 6 and 12 weeks of analysis. However, the NMN-PM group showed a greater effect on drowsiness. Also, the NMN-PM group has the largest effect in physical endurance tests, compared to the other three groups.
Figure 1. Kim M., Seol J., Sato T., Fukamizu Y., Sakurai T., Okura T. Effect of 12-Week Intake of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide on Sleep Quality, Fatigue, and Physical Performance in Older Japanese Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study. Nutrients 2022 Feb; 14(4): 755. https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/14/4/755/htm
Limitations in the findings
Although NMN was shown to significantly enhance lower limb function and reduce drowsiness in 65 years old and older adults, which will further benefit their mental and physical health, there were still some limits within this study. This study is time-dependent, ie. the effect of NMN intake has better results if it’s administrated in the evening. Also, no data was controlled about the participants’ NMN diet daily and the survey on daily nutrient intake. Although the NMN amount in the vegetables, fruit, meat, etc. is quite small, this study could not determine if the results were affected by the participants’ diet throughout the day. Furthermore, no changes in physiological factors were examined. It was only studied the physical measurements, so physiological factors in vivo effects remain unknown.
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