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Мitochondria Supplements and Its Impact on Longevity

Mitochondria and longevity

Мitochondria Supplements are important for anti-aging. How fast we age, how old we are, and how long our lifespan will depend on ourselves. This has been proven by science in many years of research. Numerous scientific studies have shown that many age-related degenerative diseases can be avoided. They show that 80-90% of degenerative diseases are associated with the negative effects of free radicals. All of these degenerative changes also mean accelerated aging. The most important life processes take place in our cells. A small place in the cell (mitochondria) produces energy when it burns the oxygen we breathe. This process is known as cellular respiration. The cells depend on various chemical reactions in the mitochondria to function correctly.

Mitochondria definition

Mitochondria are membrane organelles present in the cells of almost all eukaryotic organisms. They are short, spherical, or rod-shaped structures, 0.5 to 1 μm wide and several micrometers long. They are highly mobile organelles that constantly change shape by merging and separating.

Mitochondria consist of two membranes, including the outer membrane and the inner membrane. Between these two membranes, there is mitochondrial intermembrane space. The outer mitochondrial membrane determines the shape of this organelle, thanks to the presence of a large channel protein, which is permeable to specific molecules. The inner mitochondrial membrane significantly increases its surface with folds or crystals oriented towards the center of the organelle. The matrix fills the interior of mitochondria and is a mixture of several hundred enzymes that convert the products of the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins through the Krebs cycle to carbon dioxide and water with the release of energy in the form of ATP molecules. During this process, electrons are transferred along the respiratory electron chain, and the synthesis of a high-energy phosphate compound, ATP (oxidative-phosphorylation) occurs.

Mitochondria are responsible for the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate or ATP, necessary for obtaining cellular energy. The mitochondrion is large compared to other cellular organelles and has a spherical shape. Its primary function is the supply of electron carriers (ATP), a product of cellular respiration, which provides the energy the cell needs.

Mitochondria functions

Mitochondria can reproduce themselves because they have their DNA, which allows them to form more mitochondria, depending on the cell’s need for more ATP. Therefore, the more active the cells, the more mitochondria you need. Mitochondria get ATP when they perform cellular respiration, taking certain molecules from food that produce ATP in combination with oxygen. In case of a lack of energy in our bodies, the tissue and organs that are built of cells do not function properly. Likewise, if this powerhouse does not produce enough energy, there will be a loss of electricity in some areas, which will prevent them from optimal functioning.

Mitochondria are responsible for creating more than 90% of the body’s energy to live and maintain organ functions. If they fail, the cells gradually stop producing energy, resulting in cell damage and even death. Such a condition in the whole body will cause organ failure. Parts of the body such as the heart, brain, muscles, and lungs, which need a large amount of energy, are most often affected by this situation.

Mitochondrial disease is difficult to diagnose because it manifests differently in each person. However, some of the most common symptoms are epileptic seizures, strokes, severe developmental delay, inability to move, and speak, loss of vision, and inability to digest food, combined with a number of other complications. If three or more organs are affected, there is a reasonable suspicion of the presence of mitochondrial disease.

Although mitochondrial disease most commonly affects children, it is becoming more common in adults. It is estimated that 1 in 4,000 people suffer from mitochondrial disease. It is a progressive disease for which no cure is yet known. In many people with mitochondrial diseases, it is inherited genetically. This means it can be by inheritance via nuclear DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid found in the cell nucleus), and by inheritance via MtDNA (deoxyribonucleic acid found in mitochondria).

Mitochondrial longevity pathways

Although mitochondria are responsible for producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), this process has also some negative effects on our health. Improving mitochondrial activity helps muscles during aging. Boosting mitochondria by several pathways regulates age-related conditions and enhances longevity. Some of those pathways are:

Mitophagy

All of our cells are filled with small energy generators called mitochondria, but as mitochondria age, they become less efficient and even toxic. Cells recycle old mitochondria into new ones and this process is called mitophagy. With age, recycling is slow, which can lead to muscle weakness. Scientists have discovered that pomegranate contains a substance called urolithin A. This is the first and only known compound that can regenerate mitochondria.

Calorie restriction

Calorie restriction has been shown to improve insulin resistance, oxidative stress, cancer, and age-related mortality. Caloric restriction, a powerful inducer of autophagy, prolongs the life of many organisms but also reduces the risk of many chronic age-related diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and brain atrophy. Together with exercise, they both increase mitochondrial capacity.

SIRT1 and SIRT3 

Sirtuins play a key role in the aging process. As we age, it controls which genes should remain suppressed and which should not. Sirtuins also repair damaged DNA that naturally occurs as we get older. Sirt1 has a positive effect on mitochondria because it increases oxidative stress resistance. In the studies, sirt3 was found to be a tumor suppressor, and can also control the ROS abundance.

Dietary supplement ingredients that support mitochondrial health

Sometimes our diet can’t provide all the necessary ingredients for supporting our health. Therefore, taking certain supplements can improve mitochondrial health and a healthy diet. Some of them are:

CoQ10

Mitochondria are responsible for feeding cells in the body. For this purpose, they use CoQ10 to produce the chemical adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This process is also known as ATP synthesis. ATP is the basic source of energy for all cells in the body. However, mitochondria produce free radicals during ATP synthesis. Under normal conditions, free radicals defend the body from infectious microbes. However, an excess of free radicals causes DNA damage, which can lead to inflammation, DNA mutations, and tissue damage. By doing this, CoQ10 helps protect cells from the harmful effects of free radicals and prevents DNA damage. CoQ10 plays an important role as an antioxidant by neutralizing free radicals.

PQQ

Pyrroloquinoline quinone powder (PQQ) is a cofactor that helps protect mitochondria from oxidative stress and stimulates the formation of new mitochondria within cells. PQQ can thus help maintain robust cellular energy production, support heart health, and promote normal cognitive function.

Urolithin A

Urolithin A powder induces mitophagy by selectively removing damaged mitochondria. It also ensures the recycling of mitochondria for optimal functioning. Mitochondria are often damaged with age and very often due to stress. Therefore, the removal of damaged mitochondria plays a role in prolonging the lifespan.

NAD+ precursors

NAD+ is the primary source for retaining mitochondrial activity. NAD+ precursors, such as NMN, NR, niacin, NMNH, and more, are boosting NAD+ levels in the body, thus producing more energy for healthy mitochondria. As people age, DNA damage increases, causing a decrease in NAD+ levels and SIRT1 activity, leading to decreased mitochondrial function. Additional NAD+ improves functionality and supports mitochondrial growth. In addition, it plays a crucial role in maintaining sufficient levels of ATP in cells, which would otherwise be compromised by aging.

References

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